Direct Solid AAS: solid AA®

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Direct solids analysis – for all graphite furnace AAS systems from Analytik Jena

Conventional methods of elemental analysis can only process liquid samples. Solids, therefore, are subject to a timeconsuming sample preparation process. Analytik Jena's solid AA® technology offers an interesting alternative: The direct solid AAS.

All graphite furnace systems by Analytik Jena can be upgraded with the solid AA® technology

  • Solid samples in powder form, granulates and fibers, but also paste-like materials such as cream, sludge or viscous oils can be analyzed directly in the graphite furnace
  • There is no need for sample preparation

Typical sample quantity is usually between 100 μg and 10 mg. The actual sample weight depends on the sample matrix and the concentrations to be determined. The sample is weighed onto a sample carrier and brought to the graphite furnace. After the analysis is complete, the sample carrier may be reused.

In the direct solids analysis, the decomposition of the sample matrix by means of an acid digestion is replaced by the temperature program of the graphite furnace. Combined with a powerful background correction, the interference-free and precise determination of almost all elements in numerous materials is possible. The graphite furnace technique is subject to few interferences caused by the sample matrix. Therefore, even liquid calibration standards may be used in most cases. A calibration with solid matrix reference materials, which are expensive and often not available in the correct composition, is usually not necessary.

The Analytik Jena graphite furnace systems can be converted from liquid to solids analysis in just a few minutes - the unlimited use of both techniques is guaranteed. All functions are integrated in the operating software. Additional modules are not required. Easy, software-guided routines allow a simpler adjustment of the autosamplers and guarantee a reliable sample supply.

Three different sample supply systems are available

SSA 6 – manual solid sampler
SSA 600 – fully automated solid sampler
SSA 600L – fully automated solid samplerwith liquid dosing unit

Why solid AA®?

Simple handling

Thanks to the high degree of automation

Analysis of the original sample

  • Without additional reagents
  • No risk of contamination caused by blank values
  • Dilution errors or analyte loss during sample preparation and storage are impossible

Wide measurement range 

The relative measurement sensitivity can easily be increased by at least a factor of 10 compared to the solution analysis

Analysis of small sample quantities 

A sample weight of approximately 50 ?g is sufficient for element determination

Avoiding harmful reagents

Fast results 

  • Without any additional preparation 
  • Aanalysis results are available after only a few minutes

Device Versions

SSA 6 manual solid sampler

The manual solid sampler is suitable for the occasional solid analysis. The sample is weighed on a separate microbalance and is brought into the graphite furnace by means of the sampler. After the analysis is complete, the sample carrier is immediately ready for use for the next sample.

SSA 600 fully automated solid sampler

An autosampler for the fully automated analysis of up to 84 samples. Simply dose the samples onto the sample carriers.
The autosampler automatically weighs in the sample using the integrated microbalance with a precision of 1 μg and transports it into the graphite furnace and back to the sample tray. The process does not require supervision. Dosing and weighing of the sample can be controlled comfortably via the operating keys on the autosampler. The sample mass is imported direcly into the software. Additional software routines, such as the automatic clean-out and taring of all sample carriers, simplify the operation in the daily routine.

SSA 600L fully automated solid sampler with liquid dosing unit

Equipped with an additional liquid dosing unit, the SSA 600L offers the highest possible degree of automation for routine and research. The autosampler does not just weigh and transport the samples automatically, it also carries out the calibration with liquid standards and the addition of a modifier, reducing the user‘s effort to a minimum.


solid AA® — Fully integrated into the software

All functions of the solid AA® technology are pre-integrated into the basic software. The purchase and installation of additional software modules is not required. The fully automated analysis run is controlled and managed through an intuitive software concept that is adapted to the specific of solid sampling. First, the tare weights are recorded in an automatic routine.

Then the sampler brings the sample carrier to the dosing position. Now the user can dose the calibration standards, the samples and, if applicable, the modifier. Dosing and weighing can be confirmed by mouse click or via the function keys on the autosampler. All sample weights are automatically transferred to the sample table and used for calculating the concentration. Simple, software-guided routines are available for adjusting the autosampler. The switch between liquid and solid analysis occurs within a few minutes.


The direct solid analysis using solid AA® is the easiest way to reliable analytic results in research and routine. The wide range of applications comprises for example the following industries:





Plants, tissue, bones, fur

Cd, Pb, As, Se, Nl, Cr, Co, Mn


Soil, sediment, ash, wast, dust

Cd, Pb, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Cr, Sn


Margarine, fats, oils


Fe, Ni



Grain, vegetables, meat

Cd, Pb, Cu, Ni, Zn, Se, Na, Fe

Jam, honey

Cd, Pb, Fe, Ni

Clinical Chemistry/ Medicine/Hygiene/ Healthcare

Bacterial culture, DNA


Cells, metabolism

Cd, Pb, As, Se

Tissue, liver, kidney

C, Pb

Hair, finger nails

As, Se, Pb, Cd, Si

blood (on filter paper)



Plastics, rubber

Cd, Pb, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn

Reference materials (homogeneity)

Cd, Pb, Fe, Zn

Refractory glasses, ceramics

Pb, Mg, Na


Se, Sb, Bi

Ion exchangers

Pd, Au, Ag, Ni, Co, Zn


Acting, flavoring and bulking agents

Pb, Cd, As, Cr, Ni, Mn, Fe


Ni, Cr



Plant powder

Cd, Pb



Application Notes

  • AA_ZSS_01_10_e
    .pdf | 62.79 kB

    Determination of Pb and Cr in Organic Pigment Powder

  • CSAA_SS_01_12_e
    .pdf | 1.04 MB

    Determination of Ag, Sn, Cu, Mg and Cd in Nickel-Base Alloy

  • CSMA_SS_01_12_e
    .pdf | 342.32 kB

    Determination of Fluorine in Silicon Nitride


Contact Analytical Instrumentation

Contact Analytical Instrumentation

+49 (0) 3641 77-71 99+49 (0) 3641 77-92